Mr Javid delivered the keynote speech on the second day of the conference.
He detailed a multibillion-pound spending blitz on roads, buses and broadband, including plans for an all-electric bus town.
The chancellor also announced he plans to raise the National Living Wage to £10.50 an hour.
Earlier, Housing Secretary Robert Jenrick set out plans to cut red tape which could help homeowners looking to extend their properties and small developers building new homes.
Meanwhile, Work and Pensions Secretary Therese Coffey has announced that new apps aimed at helping young people find work will be trialled as part of a multimillion-pound employment initiative.